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Excavations are usually supported by reinforced bulkheads made of rectangular panels or by ranks of piles. Rectangular panels can be executed by means of bentonite mud, through the excavation with buckets (hydraulic or mechanic) or by means of hydrocutters. Ranks of piles can be, in turns, made by means of traditional excavation techniques using drilling mud.

An advantageous alternative technique is the CSP (Cased Secant Piles) allowing the execution of piles without drilling mud, with subsequent organizational advantages for the site and lower costs due to the reduction of the material to be dumped.

Once the bulkhead is completed, tie rods can be installed to prevent its deformation during the excavation phases.